Coconut Oil Studies - Other Health Concerns involving VCO and MCT Oil

17. 中鎖脂肪酸でできる、その他の健康効果とは?

1. バージンココナツオイル補充の抗酸化および抗炎症効果は、ラットに於いて抗癌剤メトトレキセートの急性化学療法の酸化的腎毒性を無効にします。

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of virgin coconut oil supplementation abrogate acute chemotherapy oxidative nephrotoxicity induced by anticancer drug methotrexate in rats.


2. Kerabalaの抗炎症および抗酸化効果:バージンココナッツオイルからの付加価値の高いアーユルヴェーダ製剤は、アジュバント誘発性関節炎の発病を阻害します。

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of Kerabala: a value-added ayurvedic formulation from virgin coconut oil inhibits pathogenesis in adjuvant-induced arthritis.




現在の研究は、カラゲナン誘発急性およびアジュバント誘導慢性実験モデルにおけるCBの抗炎症作用を評価するために行った。 5mg / kg体重は、カラゲナンモデルからの強力な用量であることが見出され、アジュバント誘発性慢性関節炎モデルにおけるその効果を評価した。


ヘモグロビン(HB)カウント、ESR、WBCカウント、血漿CRPレベルなどの血液学的パラメーターを分析した。 RT-PCRにより、シクロオキシゲナーゼ-2(COX-2)、誘導性酸化窒素シンターゼ(iNOS)、腫瘍壊死因子α(TNF-α)およびインターロイキン6(IL-6)発現のような炎症マーカーを評価した。





COX-2、iNOS、TNF-αおよびIL-6のような炎症マーカーのアップレギュレートされた遺伝子レベルの発現は、CBの投与によってダウンレギュレーションされた。 MMP-2およびMMP-9発現は、CB投与によって有意に低下した。






Kerabala (CB) is a novel ayurvedic formulation used for treating various inflammatory diseases.

This formulation was made from virgin coconut oil and it comprises extracts of Sida cordifolia, coconut milk and sesame oil.

The current study was performed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory action of CB on carrageenan-induced acute and adjuvant-induced chronic experimental models. 5 mg/kg bwt was found to be potent dose from carrageenan model and evaluated its effect in adjuvant-induced chronic arthritic model.

The antioxidant assays like SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, lipid peroxidation product, nitrate level and GSH were measured in paw tissue.

Hematological parameters like hemoglobin (HB) count, ESR, WBC count, plasma CRP levels were analyzed. By RT-PCR, the inflammatory markers like cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) expressions were evaluated.

The extracellular matrix proteins like MMP-2 and MMP-9 were determined by zymography and its expression by western blotting.

Histopathology and cytology of paw tissue and synovium were analyzed.

The result indicated that there was a significant increment in the levels of antioxidant enzymes on CB administration.

The hematological markers such as ESR, WBC and plasma CRP levels were reduced by CB treatment and it also increases the HB level.

The upregulated gene level expressions of inflammatory markers like COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6 were down regulated by administration of CB. MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression significantly reduced by CB administration.

Massive influx of inflammatory cell infiltration, proliferative collagen in histological analysis of paw tissue of arthritic rat was decreased by CB administration.

Synovial cytology of CB administrated group shows reduced number of reactive mesothelial cells and synovial inflammatory cells.

This current study shows that ayurvedic drug CB has an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity in experimental arthritic model.

CB as an anti-arthritic drug has beneficial effect for treating inflammation, tissue damage and pain associated with arthritis.

3. マレーシアで広く使用されている発酵ヴァージンココナッツオイルの安全性評価:慢性毒性研究および活性成分のSAR分析。

Safety assessment of widely used fermented virgin coconut oil (Cocos nucifera) in Malaysia: Chronic toxicity studies and SAR analysis of the active components.

4. ココナッツオイル抽出物は、抗レトロウイルス薬によるアジュバント治療後の精巣損傷を軽減します。

Coconut Oil Extract Mitigates Testicular Injury Following Adjuvant Treatment with Antiretroviral Drugs.

5. ココナッツオイルとパームオイルの栄養、健康、国家発展の役割:レビュー。

Coconut oil and palm oil's role in nutrition, health and national development: A review.









Coconut and palm oils which were the major sources of dietary fats for centuries in most of West Africa have been branded as unhealthy highly saturated fats.

Their consumption has been peddled to supposedly raise the level of blood cholesterol, thereby increasing the risk of coronary heart disease.

This adverse view has led to a reduction in their consumption in West Africa and they have been substituted for imported vegetable oils.

Recent information however, indicates some beneficial effects of these oils particularly their roles in nutrition, health and national development.

There is the need for a better understanding of their effects on health, nutritional status and national development.

This paper therefore attempts to review the roles which coconut and palm oils play in these respects in developing countries, as a means of advocating for a return to their use in local diets.

6. ラウリン酸に富んだ中鎖トリグリセリドは、調理用途において他の油に代わることができ、限られた病原性を有する可能性がある。

Lauric acid-rich medium-chain triglycerides can substitute for other oils in cooking applications and may have limited pathogenicity.











Recently, medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) containing a large fraction of lauric acid (LA) (C12)-about 30%-have been introduced commercially for use in salad oils and in cooking applications.

As compared to the long-chain fatty acids found in other cooking oils, the medium-chain fats in MCTs are far less likely to be stored in adipose tissue, do not give rise to 'ectopic fat' metabolites that promote insulin resistance and inflammation, and may be less likely to activate macrophages.

When ingested, medium-chain fatty acids are rapidly oxidised in hepatic mitochondria; the resulting glut of acetyl-coenzyme A drives ketone body production and also provokes a thermogenic response.

Hence, studies in animals and humans indicate that MCT ingestion is less obesogenic than comparable intakes of longer chain oils.

Although LA tends to raise serum cholesterol, it has a more substantial impact on high density lipoprotein (HDL) than low density lipoprotein (LDL) in this regard, such that the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol decreases.

LA constitutes about 50% of the fatty acid content of coconut oil; south Asian and Oceanic societies which use coconut oil as their primary source of dietary fat tend to be at low cardiovascular risk.

Since ketone bodies can exert neuroprotective effects, the moderate ketosis induced by regular MCT ingestion may have neuroprotective potential.

As compared to traditional MCTs featuring C6-C10, laurate-rich MCTs are more feasible for use in moderate-temperature frying and tend to produce a lower but more sustained pattern of blood ketone elevation owing to the more gradual hepatic oxidation of ingested laurate.

7. バージンココナッツオイルの補給は、マウスにおけるシクロホスファミド誘発全身毒性を改善します。

Virgin coconut oil supplementation ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced systemic toxicity in mice.


8. ココナッツオイルの補給と運動は、高血圧ラットに於いて、圧反射感受性と酸化ストレスを改善します。

Coconut oil supplementation and physical exercise improves baroreflex sensitivity and oxidative stress in hypertensive rats.

9. パイロット研究:ウサギの眼の再湿潤剤としてのバージンココナッツオイルの有効性

A pilot study: the efficacy of virgin coconut oil as ocular rewetting agent on rabbit eyes.

wetting agent《化学》湿潤剤

10. アルミニウムリン化物中毒:特定の解毒剤が存在しない場合の対症療法の可能な役割

Aluminum phosphide poisoning: Possible role of supportive measures in the absence of specific antidote.

supportive measures 対症療法

11. バージンココナッツオイルから分離したポリフェノールは、抗酸化作用および抗炎症作用を介してラットのアジュバント誘発性関節炎を抑制します。

Polyphenolics isolated from virgin coconut oil inhibits adjuvant induced arthritis in rats through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action.

12. ラットの酸化ストレス改善に、抗酸化状態およびパラオキソナーゼ1活性に関するバージンココナッツオイルが豊富な食品効果について - 比較研究。

Effect of virgin coconut oil enriched diet on the antioxidant status and paraoxonase 1 activity in ameliorating the oxidative stress in rats - a comparative study.

パラオキソナーゼ(paraoxonase: PON-1):脂質酸化物(lipid peroxides)を分解することにより、リポ蛋白の酸化保護作用を示す抗酸化酵素です。 PON-1はカルシウム依存性の糖蛋白であり、血液中においてHDL(High density lipoprotein)のアポリポ蛋白A1に結合して存在します。

13. 脂肪酸の摂取は、乳牛の成長と免疫を変化させます。

Fatty acid intake alters growth and immunity in milk-fed calves.


本研究の目的は、市販の酪酸、ココナッツオイル、亜麻仁油のブレンドであるNeoTec4(Provimi North America、Brookville、OH)に牛乳の代替品(MR)を補給する効果を、子牛の成長、効率、および免疫機能の指標を含む。

試験1aでは、48頭のオスのホルスタイン牛に動物脂肪のみを含む対照MRまたは自由選択スターターとともにNeoTec4(治療)を与えた同じMRを与えた。 MR(28.7%の粗タンパク質、15.6%の脂肪)は、平均1kgの乾物(DM)/ dで給餌された。



MR(22.8%粗タンパク質、18.9%脂肪)は平均1kgのDM / dで給餌された。スターターは供給されなかった。試験1aでは、NeoTec4は平均一日増加量、飼料摂取量、飼料効率を改善し、子ウシがスクワウアーを経験した日数を減少させ、クロストリジウム病の治療を減少させた。







The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of supplementing milk replacer (MR) with NeoTec4 (Provimi North America, Brookville, OH), a commercially available blend of butyric acid, coconut oil, and flax oil, on calf growth, efficiency, and indices of immune function.

In trial 1a, 48 male Holstein calves were fed either a control MR that contained only animal fat or the same MR with NeoTec4 (treatment) along with free-choice starter. The MR (28.7% crude protein, 15.6% fat) was fed at an average of 1 kg of dry matter (DM)/d.

In trial 1b, weaned calves from trial 1a were all fed dry starter for 28 d without NeoTec4 (phase 1), and then half the calves were fed NeoTec4 for 28 d (phase 2).

In trial 2, 40 male Holstein calves were fed a control MR with lard, coconut oil, and soy lecithin or the same MR supplemented with NeoTec4 (treatment).

The MR (22.8% crude protein, 18.9% fat) was fed at an average of 1 kg of DM/d; no starter was fed. In trial 1a, NeoTec4 improved average daily gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency, reduced the number of days that calves experienced scours, and reduced the medical treatments for clostridium sickness.

In trials 1a and 2, NeoTec4 altered the inflammatory response to vaccination with Pasteurella at 5 wk of age and to challenge with Salmonella toxin at less than 2 wk of age (fed NeoTec4 for 6 d), as observed by reduced hyperthermia and hypophagia, and altered the tumor necrosis factor-α response.

In addition, NeoTec4 enhanced the response in IL-4 and globular protein estimates postchallenge and enhanced titers for bovine viral diarrhea and respiratory parainfluenza-3.

Postchallenge serum concentrations of albumin were lower and urea nitrogen concentrations were greater in control calves than in calves fed NeoTec4.

In trial 1b, performance did not differ during the first 28 d when no calves received NeoTec4, but calves receiving NeoTec4 in the second 28 d had greater average daily gain and feed efficiency.

We conclude that supplementation of MR with NeoTec4 alters some immune and inflammatory responses, including increasing titers to bovine viral diarrhea and respiratory parainfluenza-3 vaccinations, reduces scours, reduces medical treatments for clostridium sickness, and improves growth rates and feed efficiency.

14. 健康増進および疾病予防に於けるココナッツ(Cocos nucifera L .: Arecaceae)

Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Arecaceae): in health promotion and disease prevention.










Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated for its multiple utilities, mainly for its nutritional and medicinal values.

The various products of coconut include tender coconut water, copra, coconut oil, raw kernel, coconut cake, coconut toddy, coconut shell and wood based products, coconut leaves, coir pith etc.

Its all parts are used in someway or another in the daily life of the people in the traditional coconut growing areas.

It is the unique source of various natural products for the development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products.

The parts of its fruit like coconut kernel and tender coconut water have numerous medicinal properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, immunostimulant.

Coconut water and coconut kernel contain microminerals and nutrients, which are essential to human health, and hence coconut is used as food by the peoples in the globe, mainly in the tropical countries.

The coconut palm is, therefore, eulogised as 'Kalpavriksha' (the all giving tree) in Indian classics, and thus the current review describes the facts and phenomena related to its use in health and disease prevention.

15. In Vivo条件で、乾燥ココナッツを原料にして、発酵処理したバージンココナッツオイルの抗有害、抗炎症活性について

In vivo antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of dried and fermented processed virgin coconut oil.

16. フィリピンでは、ココナッツオイルは、閉経前の女性の、有益な脂質プロファイルに関係しています。

Coconut oil is associated with a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines.











Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk.

Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35-69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu.

Coconut oil intake was estimated using the mean of two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.5±8.9 grams).

Lipid profiles were measured in morning plasma samples collected after an overnight fast.

Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency.

Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol especially among pre-menopausal women, suggesting that coconut oil intake is associated with beneficial lipid profiles.

Coconut oil consumption was not significantly associated with low density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride values.

The relationship of coconut oil to cholesterol profiles needs further study in populations in which coconut oil consumption is common.

17. ミトコンドリア脂肪酸の酸化障害の治療に関する現状について

Current issues regarding treatment of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorders.

18. 副甲状腺および腸について

The parathyroids and the gut.
















This review discusses gastrointestinal manifestations of parathyroid diseases. Parathyroid hormone is the primary regulator of calcium physiology. Hypoparathyroidism can be idiopathic, hereditary, or secondary to surgery in the neck.

Hyperparathyroidism is usually from adenomas or hyperplasia.

Hypoparathyroidism is associated with steatorrhea that may improve with medium-chain triglycerides, correction of the hypoparathyroidism, or administration of vitamin D. Hyperparathyroidism results in constipation because of reduction in neuromuscular excitability by high calcium levels.

According to old literature, the incidence of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) in patients with hyperparathyroidism is 9% compared with autopsy rates of 4% to 5%.

Any association is difficult to prove today, as hyperparathyroidism is usually mild due to early detection of cases through routine automated measurements of calcium.

In addition, PUD is less prevalent now than before the advent of proton pump inhibitors.

The presence of ulcers or ulcer symptoms may correct in some patients after parathyroidectomy, suggesting an association.

The incidence of pancreatitis in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism ranges from 1.5% to 12% and may be because of the hypercalcemia.

Complicating the issue is secondary hyperparathyroidism in response to hypocalcemia from pancreatitis.

Pancreatitis may improve in some individuals after parathyroidectomy.

Pancreatitis may follow parathyroid surgery because of an acute rise in calcium levels with manipulation of the parathyroid glands or to a blunted response of calcitonin-producing cells from fatigue.

Parathyroid diseases have a few distinct effects on the gut: steatorrhea in hypoparathyroidism, and constipation, PUD, and pancreatitis in hyperparathyroidism.

19. 筋脂質代謝の障害:診断および治療の課題について

Disorders of muscle lipid metabolism: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.

20. 運動前の中鎖トリグリセリドの摂取は、長鎖のアシル-CoA-デヒドロゲナーゼ欠損マウス由来の骨格筋におけるアシルカルニチンの蓄積を防止する。

Pre-exercise medium-chain triglyceride application prevents acylcarnitine accumulation in skeletal muscle from very-long-chain acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase-deficient mice.

21. ネコにおける食物中鎖トリグリセリドが血漿脂質およびリポタンパク質分布および食物嫌悪に及ぼす影響

Effects of dietary medium-chain triglycerides on plasma lipids and lipoprotein distribution and food aversion in cats.

22. 極長鎖アシル-CoA脱水酵素欠損症(VLCAD)の新しい栄養管理養生法

Novel nutritional management regimen for very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency


23. オメガ3脂肪酸と中鎖トリグリセリドに富んだ食事療法による重度の高トリグリセリド血症の治療に成功しました。

Successful treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia with a formula diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides.

24. ラウリン酸とミリスチン酸は、ラットのテストステロン誘導前立腺肥大を防止する。

Lauric acid and myristic acid prevent testosterone induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

25. グリコーゲン貯蔵疾患1型:中鎖脂肪酸が代謝制御および成長に関する影響について

Glycogen storage disease type 1: impact of medium-chain triglycerides on metabolic control and growth.

26. 低温と高温条件下で抽出されたココナッツオイルのフェノール依存性抗酸化特性の比較

Comparison of the phenolic-dependent antioxidant properties of coconut oil extracted under cold and hot conditions

27. レクリエーションアスリートの中程度および高強度の運動での、中鎖トリアシルグリセロールの摂取効果について

Effect of ingestion of medium-chain triacylglycerols on moderate- and high-intensity exercise in recreational athletes.

28. ウサギでのTSHレベルおよび体重増加に関して、ココナッツオイルと大豆油の効果比較について

Comparison of the Effects of Coconut Oil and Soyabean Oil on TSH Level and Weight Gain in Rabbits

29. ヴァージンココナッツオイル の化学特性について

Chemical Properties of virgin coconut oil





VCOについて得られた主要なトリアシルグリセロールは、LaLaLa、LaLaM、CLaLa、LaMMおよびCCLa(La、ラウリン酸; C、カプリン酸、M、ミリスチン酸)であった。ヨウ素価は4.47〜8.55の範囲であり、不飽和結合の存在がわずかであることを示している。

鹸化価は250.07〜260.67mgKOH / g油の範囲であった。

低過酸化物価(0.21-0.57 mequiv oxygen / kg)は高い酸化安定性を示し、アニシジン値は0.16〜0.19の範囲であった。



VCO試料(GAE /油100g 7.78-29.18mg)のフェノール含量は、洗練された漂白脱臭(RBD)VCO(6.14mg GAE / 100g油)よりも有意に高かった。



A study on the commercial virgin coconut oil (VCO) available in the Malaysian and Indonesian market was conducted.

The paper reported the chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of VCO.

There was no significant difference in lauric acid content (46.64-48.03%) among VCO samples.

The major triacylglycerols obtained for the oils were LaLaLa, LaLaM, CLaLa, LaMM and CCLa (La, lauric; C, capric; M, myristic). Iodine value ranged from 4.47 to 8.55, indicative of only few unsaturated bond presence.

Saponification value ranged from 250.07 to 260.67 mg KOH/g oil.

The low peroxide value (0.21-0.57 mequiv oxygen/kg) signified its high oxidative stability, while anisidine value ranged from 0.16 to 0.19.

Free fatty acid content of 0.15-0.25 was fairly low, showing that VCO samples were of good quality.

All chemical compositions were within the limit of Codex standard for edible coconut oil.

Total phenolic contents of VCO samples (7.78-29.18 mg GAE/100 g oil) were significantly higher than refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) coconut oil (6.14 mg GAE/100 g oil).

These results suggest that VCO is as good as RBD coconut oil in chemical properties with the added benefit of being higher in phenolic content.

30. バージンココナッツオイルの酸化防止能力とフェノール酸について

Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil.




発酵法で製造されたヴァージンココナッツオイルは、1,1-ジフェニル-2-ピクリルヒドラジルに対して最も強い掃気効果(体内の不要物質や毒性物質を処理する効果)を示し、β-カロテン - リノレエート漂白法に基づく最高の抗酸化作用を示した。

しかし、低温圧搾法で抽出したヴァージンココナッツオイル は、最も高い還元力を示した。


フェノール含有量と掃去活性(r = 0.91)との間、およびフェノール含有量と還元力(r = 0.96)の間には非常に高い相関が見られた。総フェノール酸とβ-カロチン漂白作用との間にも高い相関があった。



The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oil produced through chilling and fermentation were investigated and compared with refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil.

Virgin coconut oil showed better antioxidant capacity than refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil.

The virgin coconut oil produced through the fermentation method had the strongest scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching method.

However, virgin coconut oil obtained through the chilling method had the highest reducing power.

The major phenolic acids detected were ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid.

Very high correlations were found between the total phenolic content and scavenging activity (r=0.91), and between the total phenolic content and reducing power (r=0.96). There was also a high correlation between total phenolic acids and beta-carotene bleaching activity.

The study indicated that the contribution of antioxidant capacity in virgin coconut oil could be due to phenolic compounds.

31. 栄養失調のラットで、糖代謝酵素のmRNAレベルに関する中鎖トリアシルグリセロールの摂取効果について

Effects of dietary medium-chain triacylglycerol on mRNA level of gluconeogenic enzymes in malnourished rats.

32. 口腔栄養療法は、乳び胸治療に効果的か? 症例報告。

Is oral nutritional therapy effective for the treatment of chylothorax? A case report.

33. マレーシア、ケランタン州のタンパット地区での妊娠中の漢方薬の使用と周産期死亡率の推移

The use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and perinatal mortality in Tumpat District, Kelantan, Malaysia.

周産期死亡率: 出産総数に対する後期胎児死亡の割合は後期胎児死亡率と呼ばれる。出生数に対する後期胎児死亡数の比率は後期胎児死亡比 と呼ばれている。 胎児死亡率は、同一年次における出産数1000に対する既知の子宮内死亡数の比率であり、一方、胎児死亡比 は出生数1000に対する子宮内死亡数の比率である。これらの指標は、早期子宮内死亡がしばしば観察されないか、あるいは気付かれないままでいることがあるため、実際の子宮内死亡率を大幅に過少評価している。子宮内死亡を計測するよりよい方法として、子宮内死亡表 5が作成される。これは生命表(432参照)の一つの応用で、妊娠期間に基づいて作成される。 周産期死亡率 は後期胎児死亡数と出生数の和に対する周産期死亡数の比率である。

34. Sprague-Dawleyラットにおけるテストステロン誘発での前立腺肥厚に対するココナッツオイルの効果について

Effects of coconut oil on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague-Dawley rats.[volume]+AND+995[page]+AND+2007[pdat]&cmd=detailssearch

35. カルニチン輸送の障害およびカルニチンサイクル

Disorders of carnitine transport and the carnitine cycle.



このカルニチンサイクルを構成する酵素の欠損症として,カルニチンパルミトイルトランスェラーゼ1(CPT1)欠損症,カルニチンパルミトイルトランスフェラーゼ2 (CPT2)欠損症, カルニチン/アシルカルニチントランスロカーゼ(CACT)欠損症が挙げられる.それぞれの酵素の先天的な欠損により,長鎖脂肪酸のミトコンドリア内への転送が障害され,脂肪酸代謝が十分行われなくなり,その結果エネルギー産生の低下を引き起こす.いずれも常染色体劣性遺伝の疾患である.

36. 1500グラム以下の乳児の体重増加を増強するためのヴァージンココナッツオイル の使用に関する無作為化試験。 予備的結果

A randomized controlled trial on the use of virgin coconut oil in augmenting weight gain among infants weighing 1500 grams or less; preliminary results







出生時体重/ 1500gを有する新生児;少なくとも50ml / kg /日の経腸栄養を許容し、インフォームドコンセントを含むことができる。



VCOを0.5ml / ozで処理群に添加して摂取した。

結果は治療する意図で分析した。 p-値0.05を統計学的に有意とみなした。



ベースライン特性は、いずれも治療群において、出生頭周囲(p = 0.04)および中上半部円周(p = 0.03)以外は統計的に差がなかった。

1日あたりの体重増加(27.1±16.8対22.1±17.1、p = 0.666)および他の成長パラメータ、および治療群の介入期間が短くなる傾向があった。


Spsisは治療群でより低く、これは統計的に有意であった(p = 0.008)。





Medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil is used to augment weight gain of low birth weight infants. However, it is commercially unavailable.

Coconut oil contains the most concentrated, natural source of MCT and lauric acid which provides antibacterial properties.

The primary objective is to determine if neonates weighing /=1500 g given virgin coconut oil (VCO) will have better weight gain compared to neonates without such supplementation.

This study is a triple-blind, randomized controlled trial.

Neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary government hospital. Neonates with birth weight /=1500 g; able to tolerate at least 50 ml/kg/day of enteral feedings, and with informed consent were included.

Subjects were randomized into either treatment or control group.

Both groups received preterm formula or breastmilk. VCO was added at 0.5 ml/oz to the feedings of the treatment group.

The outcomes were analyzed by intention to treat. A p-value 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The difference in weight gain, duration of intervention, the occurrence of feeding intolerance and sepsis were among those measured.

Ninety neonates (46 in the treatment group, 44 in the control group) were included.

The baseline characteristics had no statistical difference except for birth head circumference (p=0.04) and entry mid-upper arm circumference (p=0.03) which were both hither in the treatment group.

There was trend towards higher weight gain per day (27.1± 16.8 vs. 22.1 ± 17.1, p=0.666) and other growth parameters, and shorter duration of intervention in the treatment group.

There were fewer adverse events in the treatment group.

Spsis was lower in the treatment group, and this was statistically significant (p=0.008).

This interim analysis shows a trend towards an increase in weight gain and other growth parameters among those whose feedings were augmented with VCO.

The occurrence of feeding intolerance and sepsis were also lower in the treatment group.

The reach statistical power, the study is ongoing.

37. バージンココナッツオイルの脂質過酸化に対する抗酸化効果。

The antioxidant effect of virgin coconut oil on lipid peroxidation.



この研究の目的は、バージンココナツ油の抗酸化特性をビタミンEのそれと比較し、特定の目的は、A)アルビノラットの特定の群をL-チロキシンで処理することによって脂質過酸化物を刺激または増加させることであった。 B)Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances(TBARS)Assay Kitを使用してアルビノラットのヒラメ筋におけるマロンジアルデヒドコンセントラチンを測定する。 C)ヒラメ筋のマロンジアルデヒド濃度に対するバージンココナッツオイルとビタミンEの抗酸化効果を比較する。



L-チロキシン処理ラット(群2)には、毎週3回、アルカリ性食塩水に溶解した50mg / kgのL-チロキシンを経口給餌により与え、粉砕ラットを供給した。

L-チロキシンの投与量は、10mg / kg /週の増分で与えられた。

L-チロキシン処理+未処理ヤシ油(VCO)ラット(グループ3)およびL-チロキシン処理+ビタミンEラット(グループ4)を、グループ2と同じ方法で処理したが、さらに20%w / wのバージンココナッツ油および20%w / wのビタミンE(d-apha-tocopherol)を含み、いずれも粉砕ラットチャウと混合した。






また、処置群および処置 - ビタミンE群のヒラメ筋におけるMDAレベルに有意差はなかった。



Some clinical observations have shown that coconut oil may provide a wide range of health benefits, including antiviral, antifungal, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. In this study, possible antioxidant property of virgin coconut oil was investigated.

The objectives of this study is to determine and compare the antioxidant property of virgin coconut oil with that of vitamin E, specific objectives were, A) To stimulate or increase lipid peroxidant by treating specific groups of albino rats with L-thyroxine. B) To determine the malondialdehyde concentratin in the soleus muscles of albino rats using Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) Assay Kit. C) To compare the antioxidant effects of virgin coconut oil and vitamin E on malondialhyde levels in soleus muscles.

Forty male albino rats of similar age (8 weeks old) were divided into four groups and were treated for eight weeks.

The control rats (group 1) were given2 ml alkalinized saline (pH 9 – 9.5) thrice weekly through oral feeding and supplied with ground rat chow for nourishment.

The L-thyroxine treated rats (group 2) were given 50 mg/kg L-thyroxine dissolved in alkalinized saline thrice weekly through oral feeding and supplied with ground rat chow.

L-thyroxine dosage was given in increasing increments of 10 mg/kg per week.

The L-thyroxine treated + virgin coconut oil (VCO) rats (group 3) and the L-thyroxine treated + vitamin E rats (group 4), were treated the same way as group 2 but, in addition, received 20% w/w of virgin coconut oil and 20% w/w of vitamin E (d-apha-tocopherol), respectively, both mixed with ground rat chow.

After the 8-week period, the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation.

The soleus muscle was excised, homogenized analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA) levels using the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) Assay Kit.

Statistical significicance was by unpaired t-test after a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was done.

The MDA level in the soleus muscles of the L-thyroxine treated group was significantly increased compared to the control group.

The MDA level in the soleus muscle of the treated-vitamin E group and the treated-VCO group was significantly lower than that of the L-thyroxine treated group.

Also, there was no significant difference in the MDA level in the soleus muscles of the treated group and the treated-vitamin E group.

In conclusion, VCO has antioxidant property which is comparable to that of vitamin E.

38. バージンココナッツオイルの摂取は、ラットの抗酸化作用が高まります。

Virgin coconut oil supplemented diet increases the antioxidant status in rats





油から単離されたポリフェノール画分の効果も、FeSO4によって誘発されたin vitroミクロソーム脂質過酸化を防止する能力について試験した。



より不鹸化可能な成分、すなわち、 COよりもビタミンEおよびポリフェノールは、抗酸化酵素レベルの増加を示し、in vitro条件およびin vivo条件の両方で脂質の過酸化を防止した。




Virgin coconut oil (VCO) directly extracted from fresh coconut meat at 50 °C temperature was tested for its effect on the activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation levels in male Sprague-Dawley rats, compared to copra oil (CO) and groundnut oil (GO) as control.

Oils were fed to rats for 45 days along with a semi-synthetic diet and after the experimental period various biochemical parameters were done.

Individual fatty acid analyses of VCO and CO were done using gas chromatography.

Effect of polyphenol fraction isolated from the oils was also tested for the ability to prevent in vitro microsomal lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO4.

The results showed that GO, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, reduced the levels of antioxidant enzymes and increased lipid peroxidation, indicated by the very high MDA and conjugate diene content in the tissues.

PF fraction from VCO was found to have more inhibitory effect on microsomal lipid peroxidation compared to that from the other two oils.

VCO with more unsaponifiable components viz. vitamin E and polyphenols than CO exhibited increased levels of antioxidant enzymes and prevented the peroxidation of lipids in both in vitro and in vivo conditions.

These results showed that VCO is superior in antioxidant action than CO and GO.

This study has proved that VCO is beneficial as an antioxidant.

39. アルコール性脂肪肝:その病因および炎症および線維化への進行メカニズム。

Alcoholic fatty liver: its pathogenesis and mechanism of progression to inflammation and fibrosis.

40. 健康な男性の血清リポタンパク質および生化学的パラメーターに関する中鎖トリアシルグリセロールの摂取効果について

Effects of dietary medium-chain triacylglycerols on serum lipoproteins and biochemical parameters in healthy men.

41. 中鎖脂肪酸の毒物学的性質のレビュー

Review of the toxicologic properties of medium-chain triglycerides.


中鎖脂肪酸トリグリセリド(MCT)は、カプリル酸(C8)およびカプリン酸(C10)が大半を占め、カプロン酸(C6)とラウリン酸(C 12)がより少ない 脂肪酸です。



90日間の毒性試験では、9375mg / kg体重/日までの飼料か、筋肉内(im)注射(0.5ml / kg /日まで、ウサギ)で投与したかどうかにかかわらず、顕著な毒性は認められませんでした。

MCTの静脈内(iv)またはエサ投与がラットの生殖能力に悪影響を及ぼすか、または4.28g / kg体重/日(iv)または12,500mg/ kg体重/日(食事)迄の用量で母体毒性、胎児毒性または催奇性作用を引き起こしたという証拠はなありませんでした。

MCT投与がブタの生殖能力に悪影響を及ぼしたか、または食事中の4000mg / kg体重/日の用量で母体毒性、胎児毒性または催奇性作用を引き起こしたという証拠は有りませんでした。

ウサギでは、静脈内投与後、母体および胎児の無毒性量(NOAEL)は1.0〜4.28g / kg体重/日であった。

密接に関連する化合物(トリカプリリン、C(8)脂肪酸を含むトリグリセリド)を用いて実施したラットでの2年間の研究では、物質を経口強制飼養によって10ml / kgまでのレベルで投与した場合に発癌作用の証拠は得られなかった(9.54g / kg)である。

トリカプリリンはAmes突然変異誘発試験で代謝活性化の存在下でSalmonella typhimuriumの5つの株の1つにおいて陽性であることが判明したが、カプリル酸による発癌性試験およびカプリル酸による突然変異誘発試験の結果は、MCTが発癌性または突然変異誘発性であること。

1g〜4.28g / kgのレベルまでのヒトでの摂取でのMCTの安全性は、いくつかの臨床試験で確認されている。


Medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) are a family of triglycerides, containing predominantly, caprylic (C(8)) and capric (C(10)) fatty acids with lesser amounts of caproic (C(6)) and lauric (C(12)) fatty acids.

MCTs are widely used for parenteral nutrition in individuals requiring supplemental nutrition and are being more widely used in foods, drugs and cosmetics.

MCTs are essentially non-toxic in acute toxicity tests conducted in several species of animals. In ocular and dermal irritation testing MCTs exhibit virtually no potential as ocular or dermal irritants, even with prolonged eye or skin exposure.

MCTs exhibit no capacity for induction of hypersensitivity.

Ninety-day toxicity tests did not result in notable toxicity, whether the product was administered in the diet up to 9375mg/kg body weight/day or by intramuscular (im) injection (up to 0. 5ml/kg/day, rabbits).

There was no evidence that intravenous (iv) or dietary administration of MCTs adversely affected the reproductive performance of rats or resulted in maternal toxicity, foetal toxicity or teratogenic effects at doses up to 4.28g/kg body weight/day (iv) or 12,500mg/kg body weight/day (dietary).

There was no evidence that dietary administration of MCTs adversely affected the reproductive performance of pigs or resulted in maternal toxicity, foetal toxicity or teratogenic effects at doses up to 4000mg/kg body weight/day in the diet.

In rabbits, following iv administration, the maternal and foetal no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) were between 1.0 and 4.28g/kg body weight/ day.

A 2-year study in rats, conducted with a closely related compound (tricaprylin, a triglyceride with C(8) fatty acids), provided no evidence of a carcinogenic effect when the material was administered by oral gavage at levels up to 10ml/kg (9.54g/kg) per day.

Although tricaprylin was found to be positive in one of five strains of Salmonella typhimurium in the presence of metabolic activation in an Ames mutagenicity assay, the results of the carcinogenicity test with tricaprylin and mutagenicity tests with caprylic acid indicate that MCTs do not have the potential to be carcinogenic or mutagenic.

The safety of human dietary consumption of MCTs, up to levels of 1g/kg, has been confirmed in several clinical trials.

42. 新鮮ココナッツおよびクルミ食品アレルゲンに関して、ナッツ類に対する過敏症の2人の被験者におけるココナッツ(Cocos nucifera)への全身性アレルギー反応、そしてレグミン様種子貯蔵タンパク質に対する交差反応性の実証

Systemic allergic reaction to coconut (Cocos nucifera) in 2 subjects with hypersensitivity to tree nut and demonstration of cross-reactivity to legumin-like seed storage proteins: new coconut and walnut food allergens.

43. 中鎖トリグリセリド栄養サポートで、妊娠中の高脂血症急性膵炎を予防することについて

Prevention of hyperlipidemic acute pancreatitis during pregnancy with medium-chain triglyceride nutritional support.

44. リンゴ酸酵素の遺伝子の栄養およびホルモン制御について

Nutritional and hormonal regulation of the gene for malic enzyme.

45. エタノールの薬物動態、トリグリセリドおよびカルニチンに関する、飽和脂肪酸摂取および不飽和脂肪酸摂取の逆効果について

Opposite effects of dietary saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on ethanol-pharmacokinetics, triglycerides and carnitines.

46. ココナッツオイル摂取のデトックス効果

Antigenotoxicity of Dietary Coconut Oil















Benzopyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, methylmethanesulfonate and tetracycline induced formation of micro nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes indicating that these substances are genetic to bone marrow cells of the experimental mice.

Genotoxicity of these substances to germ cells was also observed when low fertility index and high percentage dead implants were induced in experimental mice.

When each genotoxin was administered to mice fed with diets containing 18% coconut oil for 23 days, the formation of micro nucleated

Polychromatic erythrocytes was greatly reduced.

Antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil was very much greater than dietary soybean oil.

Germ cell genotoxicity of each genotoxin was also reduced when male mice fed the 18% coconut oil diet were used.

When male mice treated with the genotoxin was mated with virgin females, fertility index was increased in the group fed with coconut oil diet.

Percentage dead implants was reduced.

The antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil on germ cells far exceeds that of dietary soybean oil.

Dietary restriction of coconut oil diets enhanced the antigenotoxic activity of coconut oil in bone marrow cells and germs cells.

Among the triglycerols of coconut oil, trilaurin gave the best antigenotoxic activity in bone marrow cells.

Trilaurin is the major triacylglycerol in coconut oil.

47. アレルギー性の個体に関連する、ココナッツ使用のレビュー

Coconut: a review of its uses as they relate to the allergic individual.

48. バターや中鎖脂肪酸を摂取した乳糜胸患者の体液中トリグリセリドとリポタンパク質について

Chylous-fluid triglycerides and lipoproteins in a patient with chylothorax put on a diet of butter or medium-chain triglyceride [proceeedings

乳び胸(乳糜胸-にゅうびきょう、英: chylothorax):胸管から漏出した乳び(乳糜:腸管からの脂肪球を含むリンパ球)が胸腔内に貯留した状態。

49. リウマチ性僧帽弁狭窄症の発症としての乳び胸

Chylothorax as a Manifestation of Rheumatic Mitral Stenosis


Chylothorax occurred as a manifestation of severe congestive heart failure resulting from rheumatic mitral stenosis. Following replacement of the mitral valve, chylothorax recurred and was treated by thoracocentesis initially and then resolved during six months of therapy with a diet of medium-chain triglycerides. Ultimately, the patient resumed a regular diet with no further accumulation of pleural fluid.

50. カルニチン欠乏症の経口治療

Oral treatment of carnitine myopathy.


51. 骨格筋のカルニチン欠乏症:治療例の報告

Carnitine deficiency of skeletal muscle: report of a treated case.

52. 慢性膵炎の栄養学的側面

Nutritional aspects of chronic pancreatitis

53. 子供の病気と中鎖トリグリセリド

Medium Chain Triglycerides in Pediatric Practice























カイロミクロン(英: chylomicron、乳糜脂粒)またはキロミクロン:リポタンパク質粒子であり、トリグリセリド(85-92%)、リン脂質(6-12%)、コレステロール(1-3%)、タンパク質(1-2%)で構成される。


Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) bypass the steps necessary for the absorption of long chain fats (LCT), and so have theoretical grounds for their use in various disease states, particularly malabsorptive disorders.

In childhood, MCT have particular advantages since they allow restriction of dietary long chain fats without limiting the intake of protein necessary for growth while providing adequate calories.

In malabsorptive states, MCT have been used mostly in cystic fibrosis, where they may reduce steatorrhoea.

However, the long-term growth patterns of these children are dependent on the extent and severity of their chest disease.

MCT may be a useful source of calories for those with anorexia due to infection or liver disease and in babies recovering from meconium ileus.

The decrease in offensive stools, flatus, and abdominal discomfort improves well-being and social acceptability which is important for many schoolchildren and adolescents. Rectal prolapse may be helped.

Where there is loss of the small intestinal absorptive surface, particularly after massive small bowel resection, MCT can help to maintain weight and nutrition.

They may also be a useful supplementary nutritional measure in patients severely affected with coeliac disease while awaiting response to a gluten-free diet, and in patients with regional enteritis.

In children with liver disease, MCT provide a ready source of calories while avoiding the loss of fat in their stools.

Infants with neonatal hepatitis or biliary atresia remain well nourished, and some older children with liver disease grow more rapidly and have fewer and less offensive stools and less abdominal discomfort.

Where an abnormal number of faecal organisms colonize the small intestine (`contaminated small bowel syndrome' or `blind loop syndrome') intraluminal bile salts become deconjugated and cause steatorrhoea.

A combination of antibiotic and surgical treatment is usually indicated, but MCT can be used to improve nutrition before operation and may be indicated for associated conditions, such as massive intestinal resection.

MCT have also been helpful in patients with defective chylomicron formation due to a-β-lipoproteinaemia.

In the congenital and less commonly encountered acquired lymphatic disorders in childhood, MCT have given encouraging results.

This group includes patients with gross protein and fat loss due to intestinal lymphangiectasia and others with lymphatic anomalies at other sites.

Hyperchylomicronaemia (familial fat-induced hypertriglyceridaemia) responds well to dietary treatment with MCT.

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