Coconut Oil Studies - Weight Management

16. 中鎖脂肪酸で、できる体重管理

1. ラウリン酸に富んだ中鎖トリグリセリドは、調理オイルの代用でき、限られた病原性を有する可能性がある。

Lauric acid-rich medium-chain triglycerides can substitute for other oils in cooking applications and may have limited pathogenicity.


本研究の目的は、市販の酪酸、ココナッツオイル、亜麻仁油のブレンドであるNeoTec4(Provimi North America、Brookville、OH)に牛乳の代替品(MR)を補給する効果を、子牛の成長、効率、および免疫機能の指標を含む。

試験1aでは、48頭のオスのホルスタイン牛に動物脂肪のみを含む対照MRまたは自由選択スターターとともにNeoTec4(治療)を与えた同じMRを与えた。 MR(28.7%の粗タンパク質、15.6%の脂肪)は、平均1kgの乾物(DM)/ dで給餌された。



MR(22.8%粗タンパク質、18.9%脂肪)は平均1kgのDM / dで給餌された。スターターは供給されなかった。試験1aでは、NeoTec4は平均一日増加量、飼料摂取量、飼料効率を改善し、子ウシがスクワウアーを経験した日数を減少させ、クロストリジウム病の治療を減少させた。







The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of supplementing milk replacer (MR) with NeoTec4 (Provimi North America, Brookville, OH), a commercially available blend of butyric acid, coconut oil, and flax oil, on calf growth, efficiency, and indices of immune function.

In trial 1a, 48 male Holstein calves were fed either a control MR that contained only animal fat or the same MR with NeoTec4 (treatment) along with free-choice starter. The MR (28.7% crude protein, 15.6% fat) was fed at an average of 1 kg of dry matter (DM)/d.

In trial 1b, weaned calves from trial 1a were all fed dry starter for 28 d without NeoTec4 (phase 1), and then half the calves were fed NeoTec4 for 28 d (phase 2).

In trial 2, 40 male Holstein calves were fed a control MR with lard, coconut oil, and soy lecithin or the same MR supplemented with NeoTec4 (treatment).

The MR (22.8% crude protein, 18.9% fat) was fed at an average of 1 kg of DM/d; no starter was fed. In trial 1a, NeoTec4 improved average daily gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency, reduced the number of days that calves experienced scours, and reduced the medical treatments for clostridium sickness.

In trials 1a and 2, NeoTec4 altered the inflammatory response to vaccination with Pasteurella at 5 wk of age and to challenge with Salmonella toxin at less than 2 wk of age (fed NeoTec4 for 6 d), as observed by reduced hyperthermia and hypophagia, and altered the tumor necrosis factor-α response.

In addition, NeoTec4 enhanced the response in IL-4 and globular protein estimates postchallenge and enhanced titers for bovine viral diarrhea and respiratory parainfluenza-3.

Postchallenge serum concentrations of albumin were lower and urea nitrogen concentrations were greater in control calves than in calves fed NeoTec4.

In trial 1b, performance did not differ during the first 28 d when no calves received NeoTec4, but calves receiving NeoTec4 in the second 28 d had greater average daily gain and feed efficiency.

We conclude that supplementation of MR with NeoTec4 alters some immune and inflammatory responses, including increasing titers to bovine viral diarrhea and respiratory parainfluenza-3 vaccinations, reduces scours, reduces medical treatments for clostridium sickness, and improves growth rates and feed efficiency.

2. ヴァージンココナッツオイル の摂取で、HDLコレステロールを増加し、冠動脈疾患患者の肥満および体重を減少さします。



前書き:飽和脂肪酸オイルの制限は、冠動脈疾患に推奨されていますが、脂質プロファイルの管理におけるヴァージンココナツオイル 、ラウリン酸の役割は不明である。





血圧を測定し、総コレステロール分析およびアポタンパク質(Apo A-1およびB)、グルコース、糖化ヘモグロビン(HbA1C)、インスリン(I)について、血液サンプルを12時間絶食させた。ペアレントスチューデントt-独立を用いた研究の始めと終わりの平均を比較する。そして、ANOVAを使用してBMIにより拡張期血圧を設定する。有意なp <0.05であるSPSS統計パッケージを用いて分析を行った。

結果:人口の平均年齢は62.4±7.7歳、男性63.2%、老人70%、梗塞77.6%、狭心症、高血圧および異常脂質血症の52.6%であった。第1段階では、他のパラメーターを変更することなく、体重、WC、BMIおよびPPおよびインスリン濃度、HbA1C、HOMA-IRおよびQUICKを栄養治療により減少させた。研究の第2段階では、GDOCが体重の減少(BMI、WC)を維持し、DC群(-2.1±2,7cm; p <0.01)の間で有意差が認められた。さらに、HDL-C濃度(3.1±7.4mg / dL; p = 0.02)についてのみ、GDの有意差があるHDL-C濃度Apo Aの増加があった。



INTRODUCTION: saturated fat restriction has been recommended for coronary arterial disease, but the role of coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) extra virgin, lauric acid source in the management of lipid profile remains unclear.

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the effect of nutritional treatment associated with the consumption of extra virgin coconut oil in anthropometric parameters and lipid profile.

METHODS: we conducted a longitudinal study of 116 adults of both sexes presenting CAD. Patients were followed in two stages: the first stage (basal-3 months), intensive nutritional treatment. In the second stage (3-6 months), the subjects were divided into two groups: diet group associated with extra virgin coconut oil consumption (GDOC) and diet group (DG). Held monthly anthropometric measurements: body mass, waist circumference (WC), neck circumference (PP), body mass index (BMI). Gauged to collected blood pressure and blood samples were fasted for 12 hours, for total cholesterol analysis and fractions apoproteins (Apo A-1 and B), glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), insulin (I). Comparing the averages at the beginning and end of the study employing the paired Student t-independent. And set the diastolic blood pressure by BMI using ANOVA. Analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package, being significant p < 0.05.

RESULTS: the mean age of the population was 62.4 ± 7.7 years, 63.2% male, 70% elderly, 77.6% infarcted, 52.6% with angina, hypertension and dyslipidemia 100%. In the first stage the nutritional treatment reduced body weight, WC, BMI and PP and insulin concentrations, HbA1C, HOMA-IR and QUICK, without changing the other parameters. In the second stage of the study, it was observed that the GDOC maintained the reduction of body mass, BMI, WC, with a significant difference between groups for DC (-2.1 ± 2,7 cm; p < 0.01). In addition, there was an increase in HDL-C concentrations, Apo A, with significant difference in GD, only for HDL-C (3.1 ± 7.4 mg/dL; p = 0.02).

CONCLUSION: it was observed that the nutritional treatment associated with extra virgin coconut oil consumption reduced the CC and increased HDL-C levels in patients with CAD.

3. 犬に於ける体組成と体重増加に対するカロリー制限期間外で減量食摂取効果。

Effect of feeding a weight loss food beyond a caloric restriction period on body composition and resistance to weight gain in dogs.

4. マウスに於いて、ダイズ油は、ココナッツオイルやフルクトースよりも肥満性で、糖尿病性である:肝臓の潜在的役割

Soybean Oil Is More Obesogenic and Diabetogenic than Coconut Oil and Fructose in Mouse: Potential Role for the Liver




ココナッツオイルと大豆油(SO-HFD、40%kcal総脂肪)から脂肪を適度に高めた食事を与えたC57 / BL6雄マウスは、体重増加、肥満、糖尿病、耐糖能障害およびインスリン抵抗性の統計学的に有意な増加を示した主にココナッツオイル(HFD)からなる食事。








The obesity epidemic in the U.S. has led to extensive research into potential contributing dietary factors, especially fat and fructose.

Recently, increased consumption of soybean oil, which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), has been proposed to play a causal role in the epidemic. Here, we designed a series of four isocaloric diets (HFD, SO-HFD, F-HFD, F-SO-HFD) to investigate the effects of saturated versus unsaturated fat, as well as fructose, on obesity and diabetes.

C57/BL6 male mice fed a diet moderately high in fat from coconut oil and soybean oil (SO-HFD, 40% kcal total fat) showed statistically significant increases in weight gain, adiposity, diabetes, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance compared to mice on a diet consisting primarily of coconut oil (HFD).

They also had fatty livers with hepatocyte ballooning and very large lipid droplets as well as shorter colonic crypt length.

While the high fructose diet (F-HFD) did not cause as much obesity or diabetes as SO-HFD, it did cause rectal prolapse and a very fatty liver, but no balloon injury.

The coconut oil diet (with or without fructose) increased spleen weight while fructose in the presence of soybean oil increased kidney weight. Metabolomics analysis of the liver showed an increased accumulation of PUFAs and their metabolites as well as γ-tocopherol, but a decrease in cholesterol in SO-HFD.

Liver transcriptomics analysis revealed a global dysregulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) genes in SO-HFD versus HFD livers, most notably in the Cyp3a and Cyp2c families.

Other genes involved in obesity (e.g., Cidec, Cd36), diabetes (Igfbp1), inflammation (Cd63), mitochondrial function (Pdk4) and cancer (H19) were also upregulated by the soybean oil diet.

Taken together, our results indicate that in mice a diet high in soybean oil is more detrimental to metabolic health than a diet high in fructose or coconut oil.

5. 体重減少および体組成に関する中鎖脂肪酸効果:無作為化比較試験のメタアナリシス

Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on weight loss and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

6. 中鎖脂肪酸とチリとの混合物の摂取は、通常の体重の人が摂取した食事から得た熱発生量は増加します。

Combined medium-chain triglyceride and chilli feeding increases diet-induced thermogenesis in normal-weight humans.

7. ココナッツオイルの健康特性

Health Properties of Coconut Oil

8. 中鎖脂肪酸ナノリポソームは、マウスでの体脂肪蓄積を抑制します。

Medium-chain fatty acid nanoliposomes suppress body fat accumulation in mice.

9. 内臓肥満の減量に於ける、ヴァージンココナッツオイルの有効性と安全性を評価するオープンラベルパイロット試験

An open-label pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of virgin coconut oil in reducing visceral adiposity.

10. 中鎖および長鎖のトリアシルグリセロールは、体重過多ではあるが肥満になっていない中国人について、高トリアシルグリセロール血症において、体脂肪および血中トリアシルグリセロールを減らします。

Medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols reduce body fat and blood triacylglycerols in hypertriacylglycerolemic, overweight but not obese, Chinese individuals.

11. 中鎖脂肪酸:生活習慣病の予防および治療のための機能性脂質。

Medium-chain fatty acids: functional lipids for the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome.





実験的研究は、MCFAs / MCTの摂取は、動物およびヒト被験者における熱形成および脂肪酸化の増強を介して脂肪沈着を抑制することを実証している。

さらに、いくつかの報告では、MCFAs / MCTが、動物モデルや2型糖尿病患者におけるインスリン感受性を元通りにする利点をもたらします。


Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disorders, such as abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and impaired fasting glucose, that contribute to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

Although the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome is complicated and the precise mechanisms have not been elucidated, dietary lipids have been recognized as contributory factors in the development and the prevention of cardiovascular risk clustering.

This review explores the physiological functions and molecular actions of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) in the development of metabolic syndrome.

Experimental studies demonstrate that dietary MCFAs/MCTs suppress fat deposition through enhanced thermogenesis and fat oxidation in animal and human subjects. Additionally, several reports suggest that MCFAs/MCTs offer the therapeutic advantage of preserving insulin sensitivity in animal models and patients with type 2 diabetes.

13. 中鎖脂肪酸および長鎖脂肪酸トリアシルグリセロールは、体重過多および高トリグリセリド血症の被験者に於いて、減量と血清トリグリセリドを減らします。

Medium- and long-chain fatty acid triacylglycerol reduce body fat and serum triglyceride in overweight and hypertriglyceridemic subjects

14. 中鎖トリアシルグリセロールを投与されたラットの神経ペプチドYおよびレプチン濃度の変化について

Changes of neuropeptide Y and leptin levels in rat fed with medium-chain triacylglycerides

15. 肥満女性の生化学的身体計測プロファイルの、ココナッツオイル摂取効果

Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity.

16. 中鎖および長鎖トリアシルグリセロールを摂取すると、中国人の高トリグリセリド血症患者の体脂肪と血中トリグリセリドを減らします。

Consumption of medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols decreases body fat and blood triglyceride in Chinese hypertriglyceridemic subjects.

17. ウサギにおけるのTSHレベルと体重増に就いて、ココナッツオイルと大豆油との効果比較

Comparison of the Effects of Coconut Oil and Soyabean Oil on TSH Level and Weight Gain in Rabbits

18. 男性高トリグリセリド血症患者の体脂肪と血中脂質プロファイルでの中鎖脂肪酸と長鎖脂肪酸を有するオイルへの良好な反応。

A good response to oil with medium- and long-chain fatty acids in body fat and blood lipid profiles of male hypertriglyceridemic subjects.

19. ラットの、中鎖トリアシルグリセロール摂取後の食物摂取量の減少

Decrease of food intake in rats after ingestion of medium-chain triacylglycerol.

20. 脂質 - タンパク質代謝と肥満に関する中鎖脂肪酸摂取の有用性と議論の争点

Usefulness and controversial issues of middle-chain fatty acids consumption on lipid-protein metabolism and obesity

21. ラットの中鎖トリアシルグリセロールの摂取と運動との併用で、体脂肪量は減少し、エネルギー消費量は増加します。

Combined intervention of medium-chain triacylglycerol diet and exercise reduces body fat mass and enhances energy expenditure in rats.

22. 中鎖トリアシルグリセロールオイルの摂取を含む減量食は、オリーブ油よりも体重と脂肪減少率が大きい。

Weight-loss diet that includes consumption of medium-chain triacylglycerol oil leads to a greater rate of weight and fat mass loss than does olive oil.

23. 中鎖脂肪酸の摂取:体脂肪の蓄積を抑制する食用油。

The application of medium-chain fatty acids: edible oil with a suppressing effect on body fat accumulation.

24. 過体重だが健康な人を対象にして行った、ヴァージンココナッツオイルの減量と脂質プロファイルでの 効果について

The effect of virgin coconut oil on weight and lipid profile among overweight, healthy individuals.






Mensinkらによる60件の対照試験のメタ分析。 al。 2003年にはラウリン酸が総コレステロールを大幅に増加させたが、その効果の大部分は高密度リポタンパク(HDL)コレステロールにあった。





VCO(n = 16)の経口摂取に無作為に割り付けられた16人の被験者(52%)が、ダイエットと運動のみ(対照)は15人(48%)であった。


ベースラインとして、2つのグループは、年齢(p = .67)、性別(p = .94)、身長(p = .59)、体重(p = .77)、腹囲)、および体格指数(p = .08)が含まれる。

群内比較:VCOの経口摂取45日後、ベースライン(64kg〜59.9kg、p = 0.001)から統計的に有意な平均体重の減少が認められた。

この知見は対照群にも見られた。 (65.1~61.8kg、p = 0.02)。

試験後のコントロールでは、血清HDLの統計的に有意な減少が認められた(56.9mg / dL〜51.7mg / dL、p = 0.21)。

VCO群では非静的に有意な減少が見られた(54.8〜54.2、p = .69)。


群間比較:45日後、VCO群および対照群の平均体重に観察可能な統計学的差異は認められなかった(VCO = 59.9対コントロール= 61.8kg、p = .43)。

同様に、総コレステロール(176.8対181.5p = 0.79);トリグリセリド(66.5対65.9、p = .91)、LDL(107対113.4、p = 0.61)、HDL(54.2対51.7、p = 0.65)は統計的に差がない。




From different researches, it was learned that virgin coconut oil (VCO) has the following chemical properties; It is a saturated fat, chemically a medium chain fatty acid (MCFA), which is uniquely different from other fatty acids in that it has the lowest caloric value gram per gram but still provides the highest energy expenditure. Another special feature of MCFA, is that they circulate as fatty acids, not as triglyceride, therefore are not deposited in fat tissues. Furthermore, they raise the body’s metabolic rate giving a thermogenic effect and like animal fats, induce satiety and make one stop eating, hence can lead to weight loss.

Several human studies done from 1965 to 1994 suggested that lauric, myristic, and palmitic acids have cholesterol-raising action but of different potential levels. A meta analysis of 60 controlled trials by Mensink et. al. 2003 showed that lauric acid greatly increased total cholesterol, but much of its effect was on high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Another randomized control trial done in India also showed that low density lipoprotein levels were lower and HDL levels were higher in the serum and tissues of patients given VCO for 45 days compared with those given ground nut and copra oil.

The general objective is to determine the effects of virgin coconut oil on weight, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, HDL among overweight otherwise health individuals.

This is an open-label, randomized control trial, a pilot study on the effects of VCO on weight, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, HDL among overweight otherwise healthy individuals, with a computed sample size of 50.

Thirty one patients met the inclusion criteria.

16 subjects(52%) were randomized to oral intake of VCO (n=16) while 15 subjects (48%) to diet and exercise only (control).

4 dropprd out, one from the VCO group and 3 from the control group.

As baseline, the two groups were comparable in terms of age (p=.67), sex (p=.94), height (p=.59), weight (p=.77), abdominal circumference (p=.80), and body mass index (p=.08).

Within-groups comparison : After 45 days of oral intake of VCO, a statistically significient reduction in the mean weight was noted from baseline(64kg to 59.9kg, p=0.001).

This finding was also seen with the control group. (65.1 to 61.8kg, p=0.02).

A stastically significient decrease in the serum HDL was noted in the control after the trial (56.9mg/dL to 51.7mg/dL, p=0.21).

A non-statically significant reduction was seen in the VCO group (54.8 to 54.2, p=.69).

No significient change was noted in terms of the total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL.

Between-Groups Comparison: After 45days, no observable statistical difference was noted in the mean weight the VCO group and the control group (VCO=59.9 vs Control=61.8kg, p=.43).

Likewise, total cholesterol (176.8 vs. 181.5 p=.79); triglycerides (66.5 vs. 65.9, p=.91), LDL (107 vs. 113.4, p=.61), HDL(54.2 vs 51.7, p=.65) wre not statistically different.

The demonstrated serum lipid-reducing effects in this trial are inconclusive. Although, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL showed a decreasing trend from baseline, the effect size was small and statistically insignificient.

Large scale trials that rigorously control for variation in serum lipids among the healthy population are still warranted.

25. 適度に過体重で、生活での制限が無い、2型糖尿病患者の減量およびインスリン感受性に及ぼす中鎖トリグリセリドの摂取効果。

Effects of dietary medium-chain triglyceride on weight loss and insulin sensitivity in a group of moderately overweight free-living type 2 diabetic Chinese subjects.

26. 上部消化管運動、血漿コレシストキニンとペプチドYY、そしてエネルギー摂取に関するラウリン酸効果は、ヒトには依存するが、濃度ではなく負荷である。

Effects of lauric acid on upper gut motility, plasma cholecystokinin and peptide YY, and energy intake are load, but not concentration, dependent in humans.[volume]+AND+767[page]+AND+2007[pdat]&cmd=detailssearch

27. 中鎖および長鎖のトリアシルグリセロールの摂取は、ヒトの食事から誘発する発熱を促進します。

Dietary medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols accelerate diet-induced thermogenesis in humans.

28. 肥満ラットの体重増加および脂質代謝に関する中鎖脂肪酸効果

Effects of medium-chain fatty acid on weight gain and lipids metabolism in obese rats

29. ココナッツオイルの摂取すると、必須脂肪酸の欠乏とは無関係に、マウスにおいて共役リノール酸誘導体脂肪の損失を増加します。

Dietary coconut oil increases conjugated linoleic acid-induced body fat loss in mice independent of essential fatty acid deficiency[volume]+AND+52[page]+AND+2005[pdat]&cmd=detailssearch

共役リノール酸(きょうやくリノールさん、英: conjugated linoleic acid、略称 CLA)とはリノール酸の異性体のうち、炭素-炭素間の二重結合が2個共役した形の(-C=C-C=C- のように連続している)部分構造を持つものの総称である。

30. 食用脂肪、茶、乳製品、ナッツ類:体重調節のための潜在的機能性食品?

Dietary fats, teas, dairy, and nuts: potential functional foods for weight control?

31. 長鎖トリグリセリドと比較して、中鎖トリグリセリドの摂取で起きる脂肪酸化の大幅な増加は、低い初期体重や皮下脂肪組織の大きな損失に関連します。

Greater rise in fat oxidation with medium-chain triglyceride consumption relative to long-chain triglyceride is associated with lower initial body weight and greater loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue.

32. 健康ボランティアの脂肪代謝に関する中鎖脂肪酸摂取とn-3長鎖多価不飽和脂肪酸の短期的効果

Short term effects of dietary medium-chain fatty acids and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fat metabolism of healthy volunteers.

33. オクタノエートは、3T3-L1とヒト脂肪細胞でのトリグリセリド合成を阻害します。

Octanoate Inhibits Triglyceride Synthesis in 3T3-L1 and Human Adipocytes

34. 中鎖脂肪酸は体脂肪を減らし、ラットの脂肪生成遺伝子の発現を下方制御します。

Medium-chain oil reduces fat mass and down-regulates expression of adipogenic genes in rats.

35. 中鎖トリアシルグリセロール、ファイトステロール、およびN-3脂肪酸を消費すると、体重過多の女性の心血管リスクプロファイルを改善します。

Consumption of an oil composed of medium chain triacyglycerols, phytosterols, and N-3 fatty acids improves cardiovascular risk profile in overweight women.

36. 中鎖トリグリセリドは、過体重の男性のエネルギー消費を増加させ、肥満を減少します。

Medium-chain triglycerides increase energy expenditure and decrease adiposity in overweight men.

37. 27日間の中鎖脂肪酸と長鎖脂肪酸の摂取比較では、中鎖脂肪酸摂取で体重過多の女性の体組成の変化無く、体脂肪の酸化とエネルギー消費を増加が見られました。

Medium- versus long-chain triglycerides for 27 days increases fat oxidation and energy expenditure without resulting in changes in body composition in overweight women.






脂肪としてエネルギーの40%を含む食事は、全脂肪の75%を占める処理脂肪を伴って、個々の体重維持エネルギー需要を各被験者に供給するように設計された。 MCT食はMCT油(49%カプリル酸エステル、50%カプリン酸エステル)として処理脂肪の67%を含有したが、LCT食は処理脂肪としてのみ牛脂を含有した。


結果:MCTおよびLCT摂取後の総脂肪および皮下脂肪組織量は、変化しなかった(-0.61±0.38 l対-0.54±0.48 lおよび-0.58±0.35 l対-0.48 +/- 0.40 l)。

平均エネルギー消費(EE)および脂肪酸化は、MCTの間に、LCT消費よりも大きかった(EEについてそれぞれ0.95 +/- 0.019対0.90 +/- 0.024kcal /分およびEEについて0.095 +/- 0.0026対0.075 +/- 0.0022g /分である)。

考察:これらの結果は、LCT消費と比較した場合、MCTの長期消費が肥満女性のエネルギー消費(EE)及び脂肪酸化を促進することを示し、 MCTとLCT消費の間の体組成変化の差は、統計的には異なるものの、エネルギー消費(EE)の変化によって予測された差と一致した。目標のエネルギーバランス食でLCTをMCTに置換すると、エネルギー消費(EE)の増加による長期的な体重増加を防ぐことができると結論付けることができる。


OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of long-term consumption of medium chain (MCT) versus long chain triglycerides (LCT) on energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation and body composition.

HYPOTHESIS: MCT consumption will not result in greater EE, substrate oxidation, and body weight loss compared with LCT consumption.

RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Seventeen healthy obese women participated in this randomized, crossover inpatient trial. Meals were prepared and consumed on site for two periods of 27 days. Diets containing 40% of energy as fat, with treatment fat comprising 75% of the total fat, were designed to supply each subject with their individual weight-maintaining energy needs. The MCT diet contained 67% of treatment fat as MCT oil (49% octanoate, 50% decanoate) whereas the LCT diet contained exclusively beef tallow as treatment fat. Body composition was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on day 1 and 28 of each phase while energy expenditure was measured on day 2 and 27.

RESULTS: Changes in total and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes following consumption of MCT and LCT were not different (-0.61+/-0.38 l vs -0.54+/-0.48 l and -0.58+/-0.35 l vs -0.48+/-0.40 l, respectively). Average EE and fat oxidation were greater (P<0.05) during MCT than LCT consumption (0.95+/-0.019 vs 0.90+/-0.024 kcal/min, respectively, for EE and 0.080+/-0.0026 vs 0.075+/-0.0022 g/min, respectively for fat oxidation).

DISCUSSION: These results show that long-term consumption of MCT enhances EE and fat oxidation in obese women, when compared to LCT consumption. The difference in body composition change between MCT and LCT consumption, although not statistically different, was consistent with differences predicted by the shifts in EE. It can be concluded that substitution of MCT for LCT in a targeted energy balance diet may prevent long-term weight gain via increased EE.

38. 健康な人間の体脂肪の蓄積に関する中鎖トリアシルグリセロールと長鎖トリアシルグリセロール(MLCT)の摂取効果について

Effect of dietary medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT) on accumulation of body fat in healthy humans.









体重、体脂肪量、皮下脂肪および内臓脂肪の有意な減少は、MLCT群でLCT群のそれと比較して12週間顕著であった(P <0.05)。

さらに、LCT群と比較して、MLCT群では8週目に血清総コレステロールの有意な減少が認められた(P <0.05)。




We investigated whether a structured medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT) diet could decrease accumulation of body fat in healthy humans.

The study was conducted under a double-blind randomized design.

Ninety-three subjects participated in this study.

However, 10 subjects could not consume the specified meal, and one subject wished to opt out. Consequently, the study included 82 subjects.

The experimental subjects consumed the test bread, which was made with 14 g of MLCT containing 1.7 g MCFA, daily at breakfast during the study period of 12 weeks, and the control subjects consumed bread made with long-chain triacylglycerols (LCT).

All subjects consumed the same standard packaged meals.

Body composition parameters were body weight, total body fat and abdominal fat, and blood analyses included serum cholesterol, triacylglycerols and phospholipids.

Significant decreases of body weight, the amount of body fat, subcutaneous and visceral fat were noted in the MLCT group as compared with those of the LCT group for 12 weeks (P<0.05).

Furthermore, a significant decrease in serum total cholesterol was noted in the MLCT group as compared with that of the LCT group at 8 weeks (P<0.05).

However, other serum parameters were not different between the MLCT and LCT groups.

The results suggest that the daily intake of MLCT diet could result in a reduction in body weight and in accumulation of body fat, and, moreover, it could reduce serum total cholesterol.

39. 中鎖トリグリセリドの生理作用:肥満予防の潜在的な薬剤

Physiological effects of medium-chain triglycerides: potential agents in the prevention of obesity.











Medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) are readily oxidized in the liver.

Animal and human studies have shown that the fast rate of oxidation of MCFA leads to greater energy expenditure (EE).

Most animal studies have also demonstrated that the greater EE with MCFA relative to long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) results in less body weight gain and decreased size of fat depots after several months of consumption.

Furthermore, both animal and human trials suggest a greater satiating effect of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) compared with long-chain triglycerides (LCT).

The aim of this review is to evaluate existing data describing the effects of MCT on EE and satiety and determine their potential efficacy as agents in the treatment of human obesity.

Animal studies are summarized and human trials more systematically evaluated because the primary focus of this article is to examine the effects of MCT on human energy metabolism and satiety.

Hormones including cholescytokinin, peptide YY, gastric inhibitory peptide, neurotensin and pancreatic polypeptide have been proposed to be involved in the mechanism by which MCT may induce satiety; however, the exact mechanisms have not been established. From the literature reviewed, we conclude that MCT increase energy expenditure, may result in faster satiety and facilitate weight control when included in the diet as a replacement for fats containing LCT.

40. 健康な男女での二重盲検コントロール試験で、中鎖トリアシルグリセロールを摂取すると、体脂肪の蓄積を抑制。

Dietary medium-chain triacylglycerols suppress accumulation of body fat in a double-blind, controlled trial in healthy men and women.

41. 中鎖脂肪酸による超低カロリー食(VLCD)サプリメントの価値について

Value of VLCD supplementation with medium chain triglycerides.


背景:中鎖トリグリセリド(MCT)は、長鎖トリグリセリド(LCT)よりもエネルギー密度が低く、ケト生成が高く、酸化され易い。 MCTはまた、消化と代謝経路がLCTと異なる。

目的:超低カロリー食(VLCD, Very Low Calorie Diet)中のMCTサプリメントの効果を試験すること。

対象と方法:体重指数(BMI)が> 30kg / m 2を超える肥満女性の3つのグループは、MCTまたはLCTが濃縮された等エネルギー(578.5kcal)の超低カロリー食VLCD (Adinax、Novo Vital、Sweden) 9.9g / 100g Adinax)または低脂肪(3g / 100g)および高炭水化物レジメン。食餌は4週間にわたって投与された。体組成は、DEXAおよび食欲/満腹感 - ブルンデル(Blundell)に従って測定した。尿中の血漿中ベータヒドロキシ酪酸(ケトン)濃度および尿中排泄量を超低カロリー食(VLCD)の連続日中に測定した。この研究は、無作為化二重盲検法で行った。

結果:MCT群は、最初の2週間で体重の有意な減少を示した。総体重減少に対する体脂肪の寄与はより高く、無脂肪体重(FFM)の寄与は低かった。 MCT群は、血漿中のケトン体濃度が高く、尿中の窒素排泄率が低かった。満腹感が高かったのに対して、飢餓感情はそれほど強くなかった。これらの差は、治療の最初の2週間に観察され、3週間および4週間に徐々に低下した。

結論:MCTによるLCTの、超低カロリー食(VLCD)への置換は、体脂肪および体重の減少率を増加させ、無脂肪体重(FFM)に対する予備効果を有する。飢えの感情の強さはより低く、ケトン体のより高い増加と平行していた。これらの影響は徐々に低下し、その後の代謝適応が示された。 VLCD治療の最初の2週間のMCT補充のタンパク質を節約し、食欲を抑制する効果を確認するために、さらなる研究が必要である。


BACKGROUND: Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) are energetically less dense, highly ketogenic, and more easily oxidised than long chain triglycerides (LCT). MCT also differ from LCT in their digestive and metabolic pathways.

OBJECTIVE: To test the effects of MCT supplementation during a very low calorie diet (VLCD).

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Three groups of tightly matched obese women with body mass index (BMI)>30 kg/m(2) received an isoenergetic (578.5 kcal) VLCD (Adinax, Novo Vital, Sweden) enriched with MCT or LCT (8.0 and 9.9 g/100 g Adinax respectively) or a low-fat (3 g/100 g) and high-carbohydrate regimen.

The diets were administered over 4 weeks.

Body composition was measured with DEXA and appetite/satiety-according to Blundell.

Beta hydroxybutyric acid concentration in plasma and nitrogen excretion in urine was measured during consecut